In a second major line of research we are collaborating with Dr. Karen Emmorey and the Language and Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory at SDSU. Projects in this area are primarily focused on issues of word and sign processing in congenitally deaf individuals who use American Sign Language (ASL) as their first (L1) language. We are particularly interested in providing a better understanding of the temporal dynamics of visual word recognition in deaf readers. Most deaf readers struggle to acquire the fundamentals necessary to be skilled readers of spoken languages. Shedding light on the neurocognitive mechanisms that support visual word recognition and reading in this population is one important goal of our research. We are also studying the neurocognitive mechanisms that underlie processing of ASL signs as well as interactivity of sign and word processing in deaf bi-modal bilinguals. Many of the issues of interest here are similar to ones discussed below in our projects on bilingualism. Be sure to visit the Laboratory for Language and Cognitive Neuroscience website.